Economie mondiale

  • Starting from the premise that electricity will be an increasingly important vector in energy systems of the future, Energy Technology Perspectives 2014 (ETP 2014) takes a deep dive into actions needed to support deployment of sustainable options for generation, distribution and end-use consumption. In addition to modelling the global outlook to 2050 under different scenarios for more than 500 technology options, ETP 2014 explores the possibility of «pushing the limits» in six key areas: Solar Power: Possibly the Dominant Source by 2050; Natural Gas in Low-Carbon Electricity Systems; Electrifying Transport: How E-mobility Replace Oil; Electricity Storage: Costs, Value and Competitiveness; Attracting Finance for Low-Carbon Generation; and Power Generation in India. ETP 2014 purchase includes extensive downloadable data, figures and visualisations.
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  • Cette étude s'intéresse à la prévention du risque d'inondation de la Seine en Ile-de-France. Elle étudie l'impact qu'une inondaton majeure telle que celle produite en 1910 pourrait avoir sur le bien-être des citoyens, le fonctonnement de la métropole et l'économie. Elle propose des pistes d'améloration relative à la gouvernance et la prévention de ce risque majeur.

  • Nouvel acteur de la mondialisation, l'Inde connaît une croissance spectaculaire depuis 20ans : sa croissance de 8% l'an dernier est l'une des plus fortes de la planète. En un temps record, le pays est passé d'une économie socialiste à une économie de marché et, à l'instar de la Chine il y a 10 ans, cette économie est en plein boom.
    Avec l'une des plus importantes communautés scientifiques du monde et un réservoir de main d'oeuvre très qualifiée l'Inde s'impose aujourd'hui comme une puissance internationale et un partenaire incontournable.
    Pour mieux comprendre et travailler avec ce pays, cet ouvrage fournit des repères historiques, culturels, et politiques et un mode d'emploi du marché indien. Il donne aussi quelques principes de bonne conduite pour mener à bien ses affaires et propose également de nombreuses pistes pour s'inspirer de ses méthodes et de ses savoir-faire.

  • Le premier examen environnemental sur la Chine et les politiques examine systématiquement le context physique et institutionnel de la politique environnementale ainsi que les questions spécifiques relatives à la gestion de l'air, de l'eau, des déchets et de la biodiversité. L'ouvrage explore l'intégration environment-économie, l'interface environnement-société et examine l'engagement international de la Chine et rapport propose une série de recommandations.

  • This report evaluates the education reform agenda of Kazakhstan - its feasibility and focus - by taking stock of present-day strengths and weaknesses of the secondary education system. The report also provides guidance on adjusting the reform implementation plans in line with international experiences and best practices regarding educational change, and consolidates much of the previously dispersed (national) data on primary and secondary schools in Kazakhstan into a common analytical base of evidence, validated by the education authorities.Chapter 1 of this report provides an overview of the country, it education system and reform plans. Subsequent chapters provide analysis of and recommendations on equity and effectiveness of schooling; assessment and evaluation practices; policies for teachers and principals; expenditure patterns and financing mechanisms; vocational education and training; and a summary of the recommendations.

  • Le Cadre d'action pour l'investissement agricole (CAIA) a vocation à aider les pays à évaluer et concevoir des politiques visant à attirer l'investissement privé vers l'agriculture et à optimiser la contribution de cet investissement à la croissance économique et à un développement durable. S'appuyant sur les bonnes pratiques de pays membres et non membres de l'OCDE, ce Cadre d'action propose des questions et des orientations dans dix domaines de politiques publiques identifiés comme cruciaux en vue d'attirer des investissements dans le secteur agricole.

  • What does redesigning schools and schooling through innovation mean in practice? How might it be brought about? These questions have inspired an influential international reflection on "Innovative Learning Environments" (ILE) led by the OECD. This reflection has already resulted in publications on core design principles and frameworks and on learning leadership. Now the focus extends from exceptional examples towards wider initiatives and system transformation. The report draws as core material on analyses of initiatives specially submitted by some 25 countries, regions and networks. It describes common strengths around a series of Cs: Culture change, Clarifying focus, Capacity creation, Collaboration & Co-operation, Communication technologies & platforms, and Change agents. It suggests that growing innovative learning at scale needs approaches rooted in the complexity of 21st century society and "learning eco-systems". It argues that a flourishing middle level of change around networks and learning communities provides the platform on which broader transformation can be built.

  • This 2016 OECD Economic Survey of Norway examines recent economic developments, policies and prospects. The special chapters cover: Higher education; Agriculture and rural policy.

  • The recent debate on the role of money in politics has shed the light on the challenges of political finance regulations. What are the risks associated with the funding of political parties and election campaigns?
    Why are existing regulatory models still insufficient to tackle those risks? What are the links between money in politics and broader frameworks for integrity in the public sector? This report addresses these three questions and provides a Framework on Financing Democracy, designed to shape the global debate and provide policy options as well as a mapping of risks. It also features country case studies of Canada, Chile, Estonia, France, Korea, Mexico, United Kingdom, Brazil and India, providing in-depth analysis of their political finance mechanisms and challenges in different institutional settings.

  • Urban, demographic and climate trends are increasingly exposing cities to risks of having too little, too much and too polluted water. Facing these challenges requires robust public policies and sound governance frameworks to co-ordinate across multiple scales, authorities, and policy domains. Building ona survey of 48 cities in OECD countries and emerging economies, the report analyses key factors affectingurban water governance, discusses trends in allocating roles and responsibilities across levels of government, and assesses multi-level governance gaps in urban water management. It provides a framework for mitigating territorial and institutional fragmentation and raising the profile of water in the broader sustainable development agenda, focusing in particular on the contribution of metropolitan governance, rural-urban partnerships and stakeholder engagement.

  • Cette publication contient des statistiques sur les pêcheries dans les pays de l'OCDE (à l'exception de l'Autriche) et dans quelques économies non-membres (Argentine, République populaire de Chine, Colombie, Indonésie, Lettonie, Lituanie, Pérou, Fédération de Russie, Afrique du Sud, Taipei chinois, Thaïlande) de 2007 à 2014. Les données fournies concernent la capacité de la flotte de pêche, l'emploi dans les pêcheries, les débarquements de poisson, la production aquacole, la pêche récréative, les transferts financiers publics, et les importations et exportations de poisson.

  • This review assesses the Mexican pension system according to the OECD best practices and guidelines, and draws on international experiences and examples to make recommendations on how to improve it. It provides an international perspective on Mexico's retirement income provision and a short and focused review of the Mexican pension system. The review covers all components of the pension system: public and private pension provision for public and private-sector workers. It provides recommendations, using OECD's best practices in pension design, on how to improve the Mexican pension system and thus ameliorate the retirement income that people may receive from the pension system.

  • Higher level vocational education and training (VET) programmes are facing rapid change and intensifying challenges. What type of training is needed to meet the needs of changing economies? How should the programmes be funded? How should they be linked to academic and university programmes? How can employers and unions be engaged? The country reports in this series look at these and other questions. They form part of Skills beyond School, the OECD policy review of postsecondary vocational education and training

  • This report looks at farm management practices with green growth potential, from farmer-led innovations (such as those directly linked to soil and water, Integrated Pest Management, organic farming) to science-led technologies (such as biotechnology and precision agriculture). Global food demand can only be met in a sustainable way if new forms of agricultural production and innovative technologies can be unlocked to increase the productivity, stability, and resilience of production systems with goals beyond just raising yields, including saving water and energy, reducing risk, improving product quality, protecting the environment and climate change mitigation.

  • This OECD publication includes statistics by detailed type of service on international trade in services for the 34 OECD countries, the European Union, the Euro area, Colombia, Latvia and the Russian Federation as well as links to definitions and methodological notes. The data are reported within the framework of thefifth and sixth editions of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual and the Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification (EBOPS), which is consistent with the balance of payments classification but is more detailed.This book includes summary tables by country and by service category and zone totals for the European Union and the Euro area as well as tables for each individual country and for the EU and the Euro area showing data for detailed service categories. Series are shown in US dollars and cover the period 2010-2014.

  • Abruzzo is at a tipping point: despite economic, cultural and natural strengths, the region is facing declining economic growth, ageing population and a reduction in outside economic aid. The devastating earthquake that hit the regional capital L´Aquila and its surroundings on 6 April 2009 caused 309 deaths and was a significant economic shock, jeopardizing the long-term growth prospects of an already vulnerable region.
    To increase its resilience to current and future shocks, Abruzzo must encourage innovation-driven growth, based on knowledge and better use of skills, and redesign the city of L´Aquila through technological upgrade to make it more attractive to outsiders and improve the quality of life of its residents.
    The report suggests that Abruzzo should focus on endogenous resources to build its long-term development strategy and, at the same time, to increase the external openness of the regional system to attract more entrepreneurs, students, foreigners and external capital. The economic development and quality of societal life in Abruzzo will strongly depend on how private and public actors will make the best use of existing knowledge, strengthening the cultural and economic networks as a major tool for growth; as well as promoting information sharing, transparency, accountability and community engagement to improve decision making.
    More broadly, the issues raised in the report can help other governments to rethink regional policy, for both regions vulnerable to natural disasters and for those facing long-term decline. As such, eight guiding recommendations for building resilient regions after a disaster are drawn. These guiding recommendations can provide a framework for policy making in other OECD regions.

  • OECD's 2013 Economic Survey of Italy examines recent economic developments, policy and prospects. Its special chapter examines policy implemention: legislation, public administration and rule of law.

  • This study is concerned with trends in and key features of policies and programmes used by governments to support innovation in the business sector. In addition to identifying good practices across a range of programme types, it compares business innovation policies across several countries, with a particular focus on Canada.

  • This review provides an analytical perspective of the current situation, including the construction of a database, in order to help the Greek government define reforms to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and fairness of selected social programmes. The review identifies gaps and overlaps in social protection, and highlights areas where there is room for significant efficiency gains, in order to support informed and concrete decisions by the Greek government on where budgetary savings can most appropriately be made, taking into account the balance between societal groups and the need to maintain social cohesion.

  • The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions.   In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules and their application cross jurisdictions remain largely under-analysed.
    This report gathers in a synthetic manner the knowledge and evidence available to date on the various mechanisms available to governments to promote regulatory co-operation, and their benefits and challenges. The review of evidence confirms the increased internationalisation of regulation, which takes place through a wide variety of mechanisms and multiple actors, and highlights a shift in the nature of IRC from complete 'harmonisation' of regulation to more flexible options - such as mutual recognition agreements. Despite growing regulatory co-operation, however, decision making on IRC is not informed by a clear understanding of benefits costs and success factors of the diverse IRC options.

  • Objectif croissance est la publication périodique de l'OCDE consacrée aux réformes structurelles jugées prioritaires pour rehausser les revenus dans les pays de l'OCDE et dans certaines grandes économies non membres de l'Organisation (l'Afrique du Sud, le Brésil, la Chine, la Fédération de Russie, l'Inde et l'Indonésie). Les priorités d'action identifiées sont actualisées tous les deux ans et présentées dans un rapport complet, incluant des notes par pays dans lesquelles sont formulées des recommandations précises correspondant à ces priorités. Le prochain rapport complet sera publié en 2015.Ce rapport intermédiaire présente un bilan des mesures prises par les autorités au cours des deux dernières années dans les domaines jugés prioritaires pour la croissance. Cet exercice d'inventaire s'appuie sur un ensemble d'indicateurs comparables au niveau international, qui permet aux pays d'évaluer leurs performances économiques et leurs politiques structurelles dans un large éventail de domaines.

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